Experience using presternal catheter for peritoneal dialysis in Poland: a multicenter pediatric survey

Stanislaw Warchol, Maria Roszkowska-Blaim, Joanna Latoszynska, Tomasz Jarmolinski, Jacek Zachwieja
Peritoneal Dialysis International 2003, 23 (3): 242-8

OBJECTIVES: Permanent and adequate access to the peritoneal cavity is the key to successful chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). A variety of catheter designs and implantation techniques have been developed to achieve optimal peritoneal access. One such new and modified PD catheter is the presternal catheter [swan neck presternal catheter (SNPC)], with the exit site located on the chest wall.

DESIGN: A multicenter survey was undertaken to summarize 10 years of experience with the presternal catheter in children in Poland.

SETTING: Four pediatric institutions using the SNPC in children: (1) Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw; (2) Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw; (3) District Children's Hospital, Szczecin; (4) University of Medical Sciences, Poznan.

PATIENTS: During the past 10 years, 20 presternal catheters were implanted in 19 children, aged 0.2-17.7 years (mean 8 +/- 5.8 years), with end-stage renal failure.The main indications for the SNPC include urinary diversion (ureterocutaneostomy or vesicostomy), use of diapers, young age, obesity, abdominal wall weakness, and recurrent exit-site infections (ESI) with previous abdominal PD catheters.

INTERVENTION: In all children the presternal catheter was implanted surgically under general anesthesia by one surgeon. Uniform operative technique and uniform perioperative management were used.

RESULTS: The mean observation time for the 20 presternal catheters was 24.8 +/- 25 months (range 1-83 months). The ESI rate was 1/70.9 patient-months (0.17 episodes per year), tunnel infection rate was 1/248 patient-months (0.05 episodes per year), and the overall peritonitis rate was 1/26.6 patient-months (0.51 episodes per year). Non-infectious complications associated with the SNPC included disconnection of both sections (2 children) and trauma to the exit site located on the chest wall (4 children). Mean survival time of the presternal catheter, as calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, was 57.5 +/- 8.5 months; 50% catheter survival reached 72 months.

CONCLUSIONS: The good outcome in patients with a SNPC validates the rationale for the presternal catheter design and should encourage its more widespread use. The SNPC seems to be suitable for any patient on PD; however, this catheter is particularly useful in patients with specific indications (ie., higher tendency to ESI). The SNPC allows safe and long-term chronic PD in very young children using diapers and in patients with urinary diversion.

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