Synergistic expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by phorbol ester and interferon-gamma is mediated through NF-kappaB and ERK in microglial cells

Inn-Oc Han, Hee-Sun Kim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Eun-Hye Joe, Won-Ki Kim
Journal of Neuroscience Research 2003 September 1, 73 (5): 659-69
A proinflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma stimulates microglia in the injured brain; however, signaling pathways for IFN-gamma-mediated microglia activation are not well characterized. In the present study, a protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) acts in concert with IFN-gamma to enhance nitric oxide (NO) production in murine microglial BV2 cells by synergistically increasing expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The synergistic NO production by PMA was in part decreased by a PKC inhibitor Gö6976. PMA alone induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) subtypes, whereas IFN-gamma alone had little effect. PMA and IFN-gamma synergistically enhanced activity of NF-kappaB, but not ERK. The inhibitors of NF-kappaB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, PDTC) and ERK (1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4 bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene; U0126) markedly decreased synergistic NO production in BV2 cells treated with IFN-gamma and PMA in combination. We found further that co-treatment with IFN-gamma and PMA synergistically induced interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), which is the major transcription factor for IFN-gamma-mediated iNOS expression. The present results demonstrate the cooperative interaction of multiple signaling pathways in the induction of NO production in activated microglial cells, and suggest that the functional interplay of these pathways may be important for the onset of microglia-mediated inflammatory responses in brain.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"