In vivo neuroprotective effects of ACEA 1021 confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging in ischemic stroke

Margaret A Petty, Claudia Neumann-Haefelin, Juergen Kalisch, Shakir Sarhan, Joseph G Wettstein, Hans-Paul Juretschke
European Journal of Pharmacology 2003 August 1, 474 (1): 53-62
The neuroprotective activity of ACEA 1021 (5-nitro-6,7-dichloro-1,4-dihydro-2,3-quinoxalinedione; licostinel), a selective antagonist at the strychnine-insensitive glycine site associated with the NMDA receptor complex, has been investigated in various models of focal cerebral ischemia. In isoflurane-anaesthesised Wistar rats with permanent ipsilateral carotid artery ligation and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (duration of occlusion, 2 h) followed by reperfusion (24 h), intravenous administration of ACEA 1021 (bolus: 10 mg/kg, 15 min after the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion; infusion: 7 mg/kg/h for 6 h beginning 30 min after occlusion of the artery) produced a 32% reduction in infarct volume. Similarly, in Sprague-Dawley rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (2 h) followed by 24 h of reperfusion, identical treatment with ACEA 1021 decreased infarct size by 39%. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed these effects in the transient model, in that infarct volume observed using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps was significantly smaller after 24 h in the ACEA 1021-treated rats compared with Tris-treated controls. Furthermore, the increase in perfusion signal intensity after reperfusion was more pronounced in the ACEA 1021-treated rats than in controls. In Fisher 344 rats with permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, ACEA 1021 induced a dose-related decrease in infarct volume, which was associated with an improvement in neurological outcome as measured by the rope suspension procedure. Administration of the same dose regimen, as above, in Fisher rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion reduced infarct volume by 68%. This dose was as effective when administration was delayed for 2 h. In mice with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, ACEA 1021 (5 mg/kg, i.v., 5 min after occlusion; 30 mg/kg, s.c., 1 and 4 h post-middle cerebral artery occlusion) decreased infarct size by 42%. The consistent anti-ischemic effects of ACEA 1021 make it a valuable compound for exploratory stroke research.

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