DNA vaccines, combining form of antigen and method of delivery to raise a spectrum of IFN-gamma and IL-4-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells

Alp E Oran, Harriet L Robinson
Journal of Immunology 2003 August 15, 171 (4): 1999-2005
DNA-based immunizations have been used to determine the patterns of type 1 and type 2 cytokines that can be induced in vivo for Ag-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. IL-4 was used as a signature cytokine for a type 2 T cell response and IFN-gamma as the signature cytokine for a type 1 response. Gene gun deliveries of secreted Ags were used to bias responses toward type 2 and saline injections of cell-associated Ags to bias responses toward type 1. The studies revealed that gene gun bombardments of DNAs expressing secreted Ags strongly biased responses toward type 2, inducing IL-4-producing CD8(+) as well as CD4(+) T cells. Saline injections of DNAs expressing cell-associated Ags strongly biased responses toward type 1, inducing IFN-gamma-producing CD8(+) and CD4(+) cells. A mixed type 1/type 2 response of IFN-gamma-producing CD8(+) T cells and IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells was found for gene gun deliveries of cell-associated Ags. Saline injections of secreted Ags raised a weakly type 1-biased response characterized by only slightly higher frequencies of IFN-gamma- than IL-4-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Studies in B cell knockout and hen egg lysozyme Ig transgenic mice revealed that B cells were required for the generation of IL-4-producing CD8(+) T cells.

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