Splenogonadal fusion-limb defect "syndrome" and associated malformations

Fiona McPherson, Jaime L Frias, Diane Spicer, John M Opitz, Enid F Gilbert-Barness
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A 2003 August 1, 120A (4): 518-22
Two types of splenogonadal fusion (SGF) have been proposed. In the continuous type the spleen is connected to the gonad, and often it is associated with limb defects and other anomalies such as micrognathia, microglossia, anal atresia, and hypoplastic lungs. Associated abnormalities are lower in the discontinuous type of SGF, where there is fusion between the gonad and accessory splenic tissue, without connection with the normal spleen. The cause of SGF and SGF with limb defects (SGFLD) is unknown. On the basis of associated orofacial limb abnormalities, some authors have suggested that SGFLD may be related to the Hanhart complex. Others have noted the overlap between SGFLD and femoral-facial syndrome (FFS). We consider SGFLD a developmental field defect that originates during blastogenesis. Although the cause is unknown, the earlier its action, the more severe the involvement resulting in SGFLD; later action may result only in SGF.

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