JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Biomechanical tests for type II SLAP lesions of the shoulder joint before and after arthroscopic repair]

A Burkart, R Debski, V Musahl, P McMahon, S L Y Woo
Der Orthop├Ąde 2003, 32 (7): 600-7
12883759
Superior labral anterior-to-posterior (SLAP) lesions can cause shoulder pain partly by causing glenohumeral instability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a simulated type II SLAP lesion and subsequent repair on glenohumeral translation of the vented shoulder. In eight cadaver joints, a robotic/UFS testing system was used to measure joint translation by applying an anterior, posterior, or inferior load of 50 N to each shoulder. The "apprehension tests" for anterior and posterior instability were simulated by applying an anterior load of 50 N with an external rotation torque of 3 Nm or a posterior load of 50 N with an internal rotation torque of 3 Nm. Each loading condition was applied at 30 degrees and 60 degrees of glenohumeral abduction with a constant joint compressive load (44 N) to the intact, simulated SLAP lesion, and repaired shoulder. Repair of the type II SLAP was then performed by placing a Suretac through the labrum both anterior and posterior to the biceps anchor and testing was repeated. ANOVA was used to compare translation of the intact joint, the joint after the type II SLAP lesion had been simulated, and after repair. At 30 degrees of abduction, anterior translation of the intact vented shoulder joint from anterior loading was 18.7+/-8.5 mm and increased to 26.2+/-6.5 mm after simulation of the type II SLAP lesion ( p< or =0.05). The arthroscopic repair did not restore anterior translation (23.9+/-8.6 mm) to the same degree as the intact joint ( p> or =0.05). At 60 degrees of abduction, anterior translation of 16.6+/-9.6mm in the intact joint was not significantly increased at 19.4+/-10.1 after simulation of the type II SLAP lesion ( p=0.0527). AP loading also resulted in inferior translation. At 30 degrees of abduction it was 3.8+/-4.0 mm in the intact joint and increased to 8.5+/-5.4 mm after the type II SLAP lesion ( p< or =0.05. After repair the inferior translation decreased significantly to 6.7+/-5.3 mm ( p< or =0.05). Although inferior translations were less at 60 degrees of abduction, results were similar to those at 30 degrees after repair. There were no significant increases in translation after SI/AP combined external rotation torque or posterior-anterior combined internal rotation torque loading. In this study the repair of a type II SLAP lesion only partially restored translations to the same degree as an intact vented shoulder joint. Therefore, improved repair techniques or an anteroinferior capsulolabral procedure in addition to the type II SLAP lesion repair might be needed to restore normal joint function.

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