Update in pulmonary carcinoid tumors: a review article

R Hage, A Brutel de la Rivière, C A Seldenrijk, J M M van den Bosch
Annals of Surgical Oncology 2003, 10 (6): 697-704
Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine malignant tumors that make up 1% to 2% of all lung tumors. According to histopathologic criteria, carcinoids can be divided into typical (TC) and atypical (AC) carcinoids. Carcinoids can be placed in a spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors, ranging from low-grade malignant TC to intermediate AC to high-grade large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small-cell lung carcinoma. Familial pulmonary carcinoids are rare. The most common symptoms are hemoptysis, cough, recurrent pulmonary infection, fever, chest discomfort and chest pain, unilateral wheezing, and shortness of breath. Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare and include carcinoid syndrome, Cushing's syndrome, and ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion. The diagnosis is usually established by flexible bronchoscopy and biopsy, although occasionally this can result in severe hemorrhage. Immunoscintigraphy by somatostatin analogs can also be useful in diagnosis. The treatment of choice is surgical resection, and prognosis is relatively good in TC, although it is worse in AC. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy as part of multimodality treatment or palliation is still debated.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.