REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Intestinal obstruction and perforation--the role of the gastroenterologist.

Intestinal obstruction belongs to highly severe conditions in gastroenterology, namely from the viewpoint of quick and correct diagnosis as well as at determining rational and effective therapy. Etiological multifactorial characteristics leading to processes resulting in mechanical or dynamic obstruction of the intestine, often referred to as paralytic ileus, are undoubtedly serious factors influencing the accuracy of diagnosis and therapeutic approach. Digestive endoscopy is a mandatory method in the diagnosis of intestinal obstructions. Diagnostic endoscopy, colonoscopy in the involvement of the large intestine or enteroscopy in the case of incomplete obstruction of the small intestine are the methods indicated in the majority of obstructive intestinal lesions. Besides their diagnostic importance, they also enable an effective therapeutic approach which may immediately follow the diagnostic intervention. Besides endoscopy that--due to the nature of performance--belongs to invasive methods, the diagnosis of obstructive intestinal processes is unthinkable without the use of non-invasive imaging methods. Abdominal ultrasound examination, a widely applied method, provides--under optimal examination conditions--information, e.g., about the width of the intestinal lumen or about the intestinal wall thickness; however, the specificity of investigation is not always sufficient. Both specificity and sensitivity of exploration are increased by a plain X-ray of the abdomen supplementing the ultrasound examination. Better results are achieved when the abdominal cavity is inspected by means of spiral CT examination that is nowadays not fashionable but highly effectively applied in the modification of the so-called CT enteroclysis or CT colonography. The usage of magnetic resonance (e.g. virtual colonography) is similar, but its efficacy is lower than that of CT examination. From a gastroenterologist's perspective, endoscopic examination is the fundamental diagnostic and therapeutic method. However, endoscopic examination is initially limited by the cardiopulmonary state of the patient--in a number of cases, first the cardiopulmonary condition must be stabilized, dysbalance of water and mineral state must be restored, and only then can endoscopic investigation be carried out. The application of enteroscopy in small intestine disorders is only suitable in cases where air must be aspirated from the region of the stomach and mainly small intestine as it happens, for example, in acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The success of complex conservative therapy in these states is reached in 80% of the cases. In acute and complete intestinal obstruction, a surgical treatment performed in time is the only method. In these cases, the importance of identification of obstruction and timing of the intervention performance from the viewpoint of the patient's survival is explicitly the principal and life-saving concern. In acute intestinal obstructions developing in patients with malignant affection of the intestine, it is necessary to choose--according to the obstruction location and general state of the patient--either urgently performed surgery or palliative endoscopic intervention which is the reduction of the intestinal lumen of the growing tumor mass and following insertion of a drain. This method also concerns lesions localized in the left half of the abdominal cavity, i.e. in the region of the rectosigmoid and descending part of the colon. Most patients in whom acute intestinal obstruction developed on the basis of malignant disease are risk and polymorbid subjects, and acute surgical intervention may be either impracticable or highly stressing. In such cases it is therefore helpful to insert a drain and to bridge the obstructed area after restoring the cardiopulmonary state including adjustment of the aqueous and mineral environment. Later, the performance of an elective surgical intervention is safer. Another alternative before inserting a drain is the dilatation of the stenotic site by means of a balloon, followed by stenting. Up until today, various types of intestinal drains have been introduced--they have always been self-expanding metallic stents. Just the application of self-expanding stents in patients with malignant intestinal obstruction and the endoscopic possibility of dilatations of benign intestinal obstructions with dilatation balloons are the most significant therapeutic contributions of digestive endoscopy in these states.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app