Detection of endothelial dysfunction with brachial artery ultrasound scanning

Michael D Faulx, Andrew T Wright, Brian D Hoit
American Heart Journal 2003, 145 (6): 943-51
The role of the endothelium in human disease recently has become the focus of intense scientific investigation. Impaired endothelial function is associated with a number of disease states, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its major risk factors. Endothelial dysfunction precedes overt vascular disease by years and may itself be a potentially modifiable CVD risk factor. Although no gold standard for the measurement of endothelial function exists, the measurement of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery, assessed with Doppler ultrasonography, is the most studied method and shows the most promise for clinical application. It is a well-tolerated, noninvasive, and low-risk procedure. Brachial artery FMD after transient vascular occlusion may serve as an index of nitric oxide bioavailability, and its impairment correlates with coronary arterial abnormalities. These factors, with the wide availability of vascular ultrasound scanning in clinical practice, make brachial artery FMD an attractive screening tool for endothelial dysfunction. Present limitations of this procedure include the lack of a consensus definition of normal FMD and the variability among centers in both procedural technique and image analysis. However, these limitations are likely to be overcome with increasing experience and advances in technology, and with further refinements, the measurement of brachial artery FMD will likely become the clinical technique of choice for the evaluation of endothelial disease.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"