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Dominant isolated renal magnesium loss is caused by misrouting of the Na+,K+-ATPase gamma-subunit.

Hereditary primary hypomagnesemia comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders in which hypomagnesemia is due to either renal or intestinal Mg(2+) wasting. These disorders share the general symptoms of hypomagnesemia, tetany and epileptiformic convulsions, and often include secondary or associated disturbances in calcium excretion. In a large Dutch family with autosomal dominant renal hypomagnesemia, associated with hypocalciuria, we mapped the disease locus to a 5.6-cM region on chromosome 11q23. After candidate screening, we identified a heterozygous mutation in the FXYD2 gene, encoding the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase gamma-subunit, cosegregating with the patients of this family, which was not found in 132 control chromosomes. The mutation leads to a G41R substitution, introducing a charged amino acid residue in the predicted transmembrane region of the gamma-subunit protein. Expression studies in insect Sf9 and COS-1 cells showed that the mutant gamma-subunit protein was incorrectly routed and accumulated in perinuclear structures. In addition to disturbed routing of the G41R mutant, Western blot analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing wild-type or mutant gamma-subunit showed mutant gamma-subunit lacking a posttranslational modification. Finally, we investigated two individuals lacking one copy of the FXYD2 gene and found their serum Mg(2+) levels to be within the normal range. We conclude that the arrest of mutant gamma-subunit in distinct intracellular structures is associated with aberrant posttranslational processing and that the G41R mutation causes dominant renal hypomagnesemia associated with hypocalciuria through a dominant negative mechanism.

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