JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Placebo or active control trials of antipsychotic drugs?

W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Pal Czobor, Martina Hummer, Georg Kemmler, Ralf Kohnen, Jan Volavka
Archives of General Psychiatry 2003, 60 (5): 458-64
12742866
The placebo-controlled trial has been the standard method to demonstrate efficacy and safety of antipsychotic drugs. We reviewed the scientific and ethical advantages and disadvantages of the placebo-controlled trial and an alternative method, the active-control trial, focusing more specifically on the active-control noninferiority trial. Recent meta-analyses indicate that a therapeutic dose of second-generation antipsychotic will very likely be statistically superior to placebo in an adequate trial, and that the average improvement of schizophrenia symptoms in a placebo arm will be small. These findings strengthen the scientific and ethical justification for the active-control noninferiority trial. New drugs in the pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia are often claimed to differ from their marketed competitors in their safety profile rather than in antipsychotic efficacy. Thus, in many cases, it appears sufficient to demonstrate mere noninferiority (rather than superiority) of antipsychotic efficacy in comparison with a standard antipsychotic. The active-control noninferiority trial is suitable for such demonstration. Sample size requirements for various equivalence margins in noninferiority trials are provided. Scientific and ethical arguments should lead to a more frequent use of the active-control noninferiority trial design.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
12742866
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"