Toll-like receptor 4 mediates inflammatory signaling by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in human hepatic stellate cells

Yong-Han Paik, Robert F Schwabe, Ramón Bataller, Maria P Russo, Christian Jobin, David A Brenner
Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases 2003, 37 (5): 1043-55
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates Kupffer cells and participates in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver injury. However, it is unknown whether LPS directly affects hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main fibrogenic cell type in the injured liver. This study characterizes LPS-induced signal transduction and proinflammatory gene expression in activated human HSCs. Culture-activated HSCs and HSCs isolated from patients with hepatitis C virus-induced cirrhosis express LPS-associated signaling molecules, including CD14, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, and MD2. Stimulation of culture-activated HSCs with LPS results in a rapid and marked activation of NF-kappaB, as assessed by in vitro kinase assays for IkappaB kinase (IKK), IkappaBalpha steady-state levels, p65 nuclear translocation, NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase reporter gene assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Lipid A induces NF-kappaB activation in a similar manner. Both LPS- and lipid A-induced NF-kappaB activation is blocked by preincubation with either anti-TLR4 blocking antibody (HTA125) or Polymyxin B. Lipid A induces NF-kappaB activation in HSCs from TLR4-sufficient (C3H/OuJ) mice but not from TLR4-deficient (C3H/HeJ) mice. LPS also activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), as assessed by in vitro kinase assays. LPS up-regulates IL-8 and MCP-1 gene expression and secretion. LPS-induced IL-8 secretion is completely inhibited by the IkappaB super repressor (Ad5IkappaB) and partially inhibited by a specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125. LPS also up-regulates cell surface expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. In conclusion, human activated HSCs utilize components of TLR4 signal transduction cascade to stimulate NF-kappaB and JNK and up-regulate chemokines and adhesion molecules. Thus, HSCs are a potential mediator of LPS-induced liver injury.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"