HPV oligonucleotide microarray-based detection of HPV genotypes in cervical neoplastic lesions

Chan Joo Kim, Jeongmi Kim Jeong, Misun Park, Tae Shin Park, Tae Chul Park, Sung Eun Namkoong, Jong Sup Park
Gynecologic Oncology 2003, 89 (2): 210-7

BACKGROUND: In this study we examined the use of a new-human papillomavirus (HPV) detection method, the HPV oligonucleotide microarray system (Biomedlab Co., Korea), which we compared with the well-established HPV DNA detection system (Hybrid Capture II; HC-II, Digene Co.). This new method prompted us to develop a new HPV genotyping technique, using the oligonucleotide microarray, to detect the generic and type-specific sequence of HPV types. In particular, we undertook the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of the HPV oligonucleotide microarray for detecting HPV in cervical neoplastic lesions.

METHODS: One hundred forty patients were involved and classified into three groups according to their histopathologic diagnoses: Group I (nonspecific chronic cervicitis; n = 61), Group II (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL); koilocytosis, and mild dysplasia; n = 39), and Group III (high-grade SIL; moderate, severe dysplasia and in situ carcinoma; n = 40). Cytological diagnoses were based on the Bethesda System and cervical samples were analyzed by the two methods. The HPV oligonucleotide microarray detected 15 types of high-risk HPV (HPV-16/-18/-31/-33/-35/-39/-45/-51/-52/-56/-58/-59/-66/-68/-69) and 7 types of low-risk HPV (HPV-6/-11/-34/-40/-42/-43/-44).

RESULTS: In 105 of the 140 cervical samples (75%), HPV DNAs were examined using the HC-II method. HPV detection rates using the HPV microarray agreed with those of HC-II. One HC-II-positive, but HPV microarray-negative, case occurred in the low-grade SIL (Group II) and was later confirmed negative for HPV. The other HPV microarray-positive but HC-II-negative case was found to be HPV-18 by PCR. Low-risk types of HPV were detected in 3 of 39 low-grade SIL cases (Group II) using the HPV microarray. HPV-16 was the most frequent type (32.1%) in all specimens tested, and was significantly more frequent in low-grade or high-grade intraepithelial lesions (Groups II or III) than in normal controls (Group I) (P < 0.05). HPV-58 was the second most common type (17.5%) in Group III. The HPV microarray was found to have advantages in terms of identifying the HPV genotypes and cases of multiple HPV infection. Double HPV infections were detected in 12 cases and triple HPV infections in 7 cases. Two cases were positive for four types of HPV (HPV-16/18/33/35, HPV-16/18/58/68). The sensitivity of HPV testing (HC-II; 94.9%, HPV microarray; 93.7%) for identifying patients with squamous intraepithelial lesion was significantly better than the sensitivity of cytology (77.1%, P < 0.05). On using multiple logistic regression analysis to estimate the relative risk of SIL versus HPV type, HPV-16-positive cases were found to have a 7.5-fold risk of SIL (95% CI = 3.28-16.51; P < 0.01). HPV-33 and HPV-58 were found to be significantly related to high-grade SILs (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the HPV oligonucleotide microarray is highly comparable to HC-II for detecting HPV in cervical specimens. The HPV oligonucleotide microarray provides useful information on viral genotype and multiple HPV infections in HPV-related cervical lesions. Genetic information on HPV in cervical specimens might be a particular benefit of the new procedure in the management of cervical neoplastic lesions

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