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Uric acid and survival in chronic heart failure: validation and application in metabolic, functional, and hemodynamic staging

Stefan D Anker, Wolfram Doehner, Mathias Rauchhaus, Rakesh Sharma, Darrel Francis, Christoph Knosalla, Constantinos H Davos, Mariantonietta Cicoira, Waqar Shamim, Michel Kemp, Robert Segal, Karl Josef Osterziel, Francisco Leyva, Roland Hetzer, Piotr Ponikowski, Andrew J S Coats
Circulation 2003 April 22, 107 (15): 1991-7
12707250

BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (UA) could be a valid prognostic marker and useful for metabolic, hemodynamic, and functional (MFH) staging in chronic heart failure (CHF).

METHODS AND RESULTS: For the derivation study, 112 patients with CHF (age 59+/-12 years, peak oxygen consumption [Vo2] 17+/-7 mL/kg per minute) were recruited. In separate studies, we validated the prognostic value of UA (n=182) and investigated the relationship between MFH score and the decision to list patients for heart transplantation (n=120). In the derivation study, the best mortality predicting UA cutoff (at 12 months) was 565 micromol/L (9.50 mg/dL) (independently of age, peak Vo2, left ventricular ejection fraction, diuretic dose, sodium, creatinine, and urea; P<0.0001). In the validation study, UA >or=565 micromol/L predicted mortality (hazard ratio, 7.14; P<0.0001). In 16 patients (from both studies) with UA >or=565 micromol/L, left ventricular ejection fraction <or=25% and peak Vo2 <or=14 mL/kg per min (MFH score 3), 12-month survival was lowest (31%) compared with patients with 2 (64%), 1 (77%), or no (98%, P<0.0001) risk factor. In an independent study, 51% of patients with MFH score 2 and 81% of patients with MFH score 3 were listed for transplantation. The positive predictive value of not being listed for heart transplantation with an MFH score of 0 or 1 was 100%.

CONCLUSIONS: High serum UA levels are a strong, independent marker of impaired prognosis in patients with moderate to severe CHF. The relationship between serum UA and survival in CHF is graded. MFH staging of patients with CHF is feasible.

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