COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting provides complete revascularization with reduced myocardial injury, transfusion requirements, and length of stay: a prospective randomized comparison of two hundred unselected patients undergoing off-pump versus conventional coronary artery bypass grafting

J D Puskas, W H Williams, P G Duke, J R Staples, K E Glas, J J Marshall, M Leimbach, P Huber, S Garas, B H Sammons, S A McCall, R J Petersen, D E Bailey, H Chu, E M Mahoney, W S Weintraub, R A Guyton
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 2003, 125 (4): 797-808
12698142

OBJECTIVE: Retrospective comparisons of selected patients undergoing off-pump versus conventional on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting have yielded inconsistent results and raised concerns about completeness of revascularization in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

METHODS: Two hundred unselected patients referred for elective primary coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly assigned to undergo off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting with an Octopus tissue stabilizer (Medtronic, Inc, Minneapolis, Minn) or conventional coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass by a single surgeon. Revascularization intent determined before random assignment was compared with the revascularization performed. All management followed strict, unbiased, criteria-driven protocols. Patients and nonoperative care providers were blinded to surgical group.

RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar. The number of grafts performed per patient (mean +/- SD 3.39 +/- 1.04 for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, 3.40 +/- 1.08 for conventional coronary artery bypass grafting) and the index of completeness of revascularization (number of grafts performed/number of grafts intended, 1.00 +/- 0.18 for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, 1.01 +/- 0.09 for conventional coronary artery bypass grafting) were similar. Likewise, the index of completeness of revascularization was similar between groups for the lateral wall. Combined hospital and 30-day mortalities and stroke rates were similar. Postoperative myocardial serum enzyme measures were significantly lower after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, suggesting less myocardial injury. Adjusted postoperative thromboelastogram indices, fibrinogen, international normalized ratio, and platelet levels all showed significantly less coagulopathy after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting received fewer units of blood, were more likely to avoid transfusion altogether, and had a higher hematocrit at discharge. Cardiopulmonary bypass was an independent predictor of transfusion (odds ratio 2.42, P =.0073) by multivariate analysis. More patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting were extubated in the operating room and within 4 hours. Postoperative length of stay (in days) was shorter for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (5.1 +/- 6.5 for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, 6.1 +/- 8.2 for conventional coronary artery bypass grafting, P =.005 by Wilcoxon test). One patient (in the conventional coronary artery bypass grafting group) required angioplasty for graft closure within 30 days.

CONCLUSIONS: When compared with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting achieved similar completeness of revascularization, similar in-hospital and 30-day outcomes, shorter length of stay, reduced transfusion requirement, and less myocardial injury.

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