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Percutaneous mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation.

Mitral regurgitation (MR) associated with, ischemic, and degenerative (prolapse) disease, contributes to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction due to remodeling, and LV dilation, resulting in worsening of MR. Mitral valve (MV) surgical repair has provided improvement in survival, LV function and symptoms, especially when performed early. Surgical repair is complex, due to diverse etiologies and has significant complications. The Society for Thoracic Surgery database shows that operative mortality for a 1st repair is 2% and for re-do repair is 4 times that. Cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest are required. The attendant morbidity prolongs hospitalization and recovery. Alfieri simplified mitral repair using an edge-to-edge technique which subsequently has been shown to be effective for multiple etiologies of MR. The MV leaflers are typically brought together by a central suture producing a double orifice MV without stenosis. Umana reported that MR decreased from grade 3.6 +/- 0.5 to 0.8 +/- 0.4 (P < 0.0001) and LV ejection fraction increased from 33 +/- 13% to 45 +/- 11% (P = 0.0156). In 121 patients, Maisano reported freedom from re-operation of 95 +/- 4.8% with up to 6 year follow-up. Oz developed a MV "grasper" that is directly placed via a left ventriculotomy and coapts both leaflets which are then fastened by a graduated spiral screw. An in-vitro model using explanted human valves showed significant reduction in MR and in canine studies, animals followed by serial echo had persistent MV coaptation. At 12 weeks the device was endothelialized. These promising results have paved the way for a percutaneous or minimally invasive-off pump mitral repair. Evalve has developed catheter-based technology, which, by apposing the edges of a regurgitant MV, results in edge-to-edge repair. Release of the device is done after echo and fluoroscopic evaluation under normal loading conditions. If the desired effect is not produced the device can be repositioned or retrieved. Animal studies show excellent healing, with incorporation of the device into the leaflets at 6-10 weeks with persistent coaptation. Another percutaneous approach has been to utilize the proximity of the coronary sinus (CS) to the mitral annulus (MA). Placement of a self-compressing device in the CS along the region of the posterior MA has, in canine models, reduced MR and addresses the issues of MA dilation and its contribution to MR. Ongoing studies are underway for both techniques.

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