Association of the CTLA-4 gene 49 A/G polymorphism with type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease in Japanese children

Mie Mochizuki, Shin Amemiya, Kisho Kobayashi, Koji Kobayashi, Yoshie Shimura, Toshihide Ishihara, Yoshiko Nakagomi, Kazumichi Onigata, Shinya Tamai, Akira Kasuga, Shinpei Nanazawa
Diabetes Care 2003, 26 (3): 843-7

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the role of the T-lymphocyte-associated-4 (CTLA-4) polymorphism in the susceptibility to child-onset type 1 diabetes with regard to its clinical characteristics and complications with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in the Japanese population.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The CTLA-4 49 A/G polymorphism was detected by the PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) method in 97 type 1 diabetic subjects and 20 patients with Graves' disease, a cohort which included 4 patients who also had type 1 diabetes.

RESULTS: The genotypes and allele frequencies of this polymorphism did not differ between the type 1 diabetic subjects and the control subjects. The G allele frequency was 63.9% in the type 1 diabetic subjects. The G allele frequency in the subgroup of patients with a high titer of autoantibodies to the GAD antibody (Ab) was 72.9% (P = 0.0499 vs. control subjects); in the subgroup of patients without HLA DRB1*0405, it was 72.6% (P = 0.0271 vs. control subjects); and in the subgroup of patients with a residual beta-cell function, it was 78.6% (P = 0.0391 vs. control subjects). The G allele frequency in the patients with Graves' disease was also significantly higher at 78.1% (P = 0.0405 vs. control subjects). Furthermore, the frequency in our diabetic subjects complicated with Graves' disease was even higher (87.5%).

CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that a distinct association exists between the G allele of CTLA-4 and high values of GAD Ab, residual beta-cell function, and the absence of HLA-DRB1*0405.

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