Rac1 and superoxide are required for the expression of cell adhesion molecules induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in endothelial cells

Xi-Lin Chen, Qiang Zhang, Ruozhi Zhao, Xiaoyu Ding, Pradyumna E Tummala, Russell M Medford
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2003, 305 (2): 573-80
Oxidative signals play an important role in the regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression. Small GTP-binding protein Rac1 is activated by various proinflammatory substances and regulates superoxide generation in endothelial cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that adenoviral-mediated expression of dominant negative N17Rac1 (Ad.N17Rac1) suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Ad.N17Rac1 did not inhibit TNF-alpha-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding activity or inhibitor of NF-kappaB-alpha degradation. In contrast, Ad.N17Rac1 inhibited TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB-driven HIV(kappaB)(4)-CAT and p288VCAM-Luc promoter activity, suggesting that N17Rac1 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1, E-selectin, and ICAM-1 through suppressing NF-kappaB-mediated transactivation. In addition, expression of superoxide dismutase by adenovirus suppressed TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1, E-selectin, and ICAM-1 mRNA accumulation. However, adenoviral-mediated expression of catalase only partially inhibited TNF-alpha-induced E-selectin gene expression and had no effect on VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 gene expression. These data suggest that Rac1 and superoxide play crucial roles in the regulation of expression of cell adhesion molecules in endothelial cells.

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