The role of G-protein signaling in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell mobilization

Thalia Papayannopoulou, Gregory V Priestley, Halvard Bonig, Betty Nakamoto
Blood 2003 June 15, 101 (12): 4739-47
The directed migration of mature leukocytes to inflammatory sites and the lymphocyte trafficking in vivo are dependent on G protein-coupled receptors and delivered through pertussis toxin (Ptx)-sensitive Gi-protein signaling. In the present study, we explored the in vivo role of G-protein signaling on the redistribution or mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HPCs). A single injection of Ptx in mice elicits a long-lasting leukocytosis and a progressive increase in circulating colony-forming unit-culture (CFU-C) and colony-forming unit spleen (CFU-S). We found that the prolonged effect is sustained by a continuous slow release of Ptx bound to red blood cells or other cells and is potentially enhanced by an indirect influence on cell proliferation. Plasma levels of certain cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF]) increase days after Ptx treatment, but these are unlikely initiators of mobilization. In addition to normal mice, mice genetically deficient in monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), G-CSF receptor, beta2 integrins, or selectins responded to Ptx treatment, suggesting independence of Ptx-response from the expression of these molecules. Combined treatments of Ptx with anti-very late activation antigen (anti-VLA-4), uncovered potentially important insight in the interplay of chemokines/integrins, and the synergy of Ptx with G-CSF appeared to be dependent on MMP-9. As Ptx-mobilized kit+ cells display virtually no response to stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) in vitro, our data suggest that disruption of CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling may be the underlying mechanism of Ptx-induced mobilization and indirectly reinforce the notion that active signaling through this pathway is required for continuous retention of cells within the bone marrow. Collectively, our data unveil a novel example of mobilization through pharmacologic modulation of signaling.

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