COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

GM-CSF versus G-CSF: engraftment characteristics, resource utilization, and cost following autologous PBSC transplantation

M S Zumberg, H L Leather, C Nejame, C Meyer, J R Wingard
Cytotherapy 2002, 4 (6): 531-8
12568989

BACKGROUND: G-CSF and GM-CSF have both been shown to decrease the time to hematopoietic recovery when administered after autologous BM or peripheral stem cell re-infusion. However, few studies have compared G-CSF and GM-CSF to determine which is the preferred myeloid growth factor.

METHODS: This study compares a prospectively accrued cohort of 22 patients receiving GM-CSF with a historical cohort of patients who received G-CSF commencing Day + 6 after autologous PBSC transplantation. Patients were matched based on disease type and stage, CD34(+) cell dose/kg, conditioning regimen, and prior treatment. Time to myeloid engraftment, growth factor utilization, antibiotic utilization, fever incidence, and cost were compared.

RESULTS: The median time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment was similar in the two groups (ANC > 500 /mm(3), GM-CSF 12 versus G-CSF 11, P = 0.69). There was a trend towards more days of temperature > 38.0 masculine C (six versus three, P = 0.05) and febrile neutropenia (three versus two, P = 0.06) in the GM-CSF arm. There was a trend towards increased use of i.v. antibiotics in the GM-CSF cohort (7.6 days versus 5.5 days, P = 0.06). More chest X-rays (1.5 versus 1.0, P = 0.03) were ordered, and more blood cultures drawn (4.2 versus 2.7, P = 0.05) as part of fever evaluation in the group treated with GM-CSF. Resource utilization based on actual wholesale pricing (AWP) favored the G-CSF cohort. Applying a sensitivity analysis, GM-CSF became cost-effective when priced below $94 per 250 micro g, despite greater resource utilization.

DISCUSSION: This study suggests that engraftment characteristics are similar with GM-CSF and G-CSF following PBSC transplantation. Resource utilization for fever treatment and evaluation may be greater with GM-CSF. Determination of which agent is more cost-effective depends on institutional acquisition costs.

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