School-aged children with Kawasaki disease: high incidence of cervical lymphadenopathy and coronary artery involvement

P C Fan, C H Chiu, M H Yen, Y C Huang, C C Li, T Y Lin
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 2003, 39 (1): 55-7

OBJECTIVE: We describe 10 school-aged children with Kawasaki disease (KD) with a high incidence of cervical lymphadenopathy and coronary abnormality.

METHODS: Based on a database of 1002 children with KD in Chang Gung Children's Hospital from January 1983 to March 2001, 10 (1%) school-aged patients (five boys, five girls) who met the diagnostic criteria of KD were included for analysis.

RESULTS: Cervical lymphadenopathy was noted in all (100%) of these patients. Unilateral neck mass mimicking acute suppurative infections not responding to antibiotic therapy was the initial presentation in nine (90%) of the 10 patients. The mean interval between disease onset and diagnosis was 9.9 +/- 3.3 days (range, 6-15 days). Seven (70%) of these patients responded to one course of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy (2 g/kg) and oral aspirin (80-100 mg/kg per day), two (20%) required a second course of IVIG, and one (10%) responded to high-dose aspirin treatment only. Coronary artery abnormality (dilatation or aneurysm) was documented by echocardiography in seven (70%) patients (four boys, three girls). In six patients, the coronary artery abnormalities resolved in 1 year, while one patient had persistent right coronary artery aneurysm, which necessitated continued anticoagulant and low-dose aspirin therapy.

CONCLUSION: The incidence of school-aged children among patients with KD is about 1% in our hospital. These patients are notable for the high incidence of initial manifestations of unilateral neck mass and coronary artery involvement. This disease should be listed as the differential diagnosis in school-aged children presenting with fever and neck mass that do not respond to antibiotic therapy.

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