Early oxidative stress in the diabetic kidney: effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid

Irina G Obrosova, Lamia Fathallah, Edwin Liu, Jaffar Nourooz-Zadeh
Free Radical Biology & Medicine 2003 January 15, 34 (2): 186-95
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The attempts to identify early markers of diabetes-induced renal oxidative injury resulted in contradictory findings. We characterized early oxidative stress in renal cortex of diabetic rats, and evaluated whether it can be prevented by the potent antioxidant, DL-alpha-lipoic acid. The experiments were performed on control rats and streptozotocin-diabetic rats treated with/without DL-alpha-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg i.p., for 3 weeks from induction of diabetes). Malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxyalkenal concentration was increased in diabetic rats vs. controls (p <.01) and this increase was partially prevented by DL-alpha-lipoic acid. F(2) isoprostane concentrations (measured by GCMS) expressed per either mg protein or arachidonic acid content were not different in control and diabetic rats but were decreased several-fold with DL-alpha-lipoic acid treatment. Both GSH and ascorbate (AA) levels were decreased and GSSG/GSH and dehydroascorbate/AA ratios increased in diabetic rats vs. controls (p <.01 for all comparisons), and these changes were completely or partially (AA) prevented by DL-alpha-lipoic acid. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase, and NADH oxidase, but not catalase, were upregulated in diabetic rats vs. controls, and these activities, except glutathione peroxidase, were decreased by DL-alpha-lipoic acid. In conclusion, enhanced oxidative stress is present in rat renal cortex in early diabetes, and is prevented by DL-alpha-lipoic acid.

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