The role of sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy in the diagnosis and management of lower gastrointestinal disorders: endoscopic findings, therapy, and complications

Mitchell S Cappell, David Friedel
Medical Clinics of North America 2002, 86 (6): 1253-88
Flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy have revolutionized the clinical management of colonic diseases. Colonoscopy is a highly sensitive and specific test. Colonic diseases often produce characteristic colonoscopic findings, as well as characteristic histologic findings, as identified in colonoscopic biopsy or polypectomy specimens. Colonoscopy is relatively safe, with a low incidence of serious complications, such as colonic perforation, hemorrhage, cardiopulmonary arrest, or sepsis. Colonoscopy is becoming more important clinically because of more widespread use of screening colonoscopy for colon cancer, application of therapeutic colonoscopy, and exciting new technical improvements.

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