Left ventricular remodeling early after aortic valve replacement: differential effects on diastolic function in aortic valve stenosis and aortic regurgitation

Hildo J Lamb, Hugo P Beyerbacht, Albert de Roos, Arnoud van der Laarse, Hubert W Vliegen, Ferre Leujes, Jeroen J Bax, Ernst E van der Wall
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2002 December 18, 40 (12): 2182-8

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aortic valve replacement (AVR) on left ventricular (LV) function and LV remodeling, comparing patients with aortic valve stenosis to patients with aortic regurgitation.

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve disease is associated with eccentric or concentric LV hypertrophy and changes in LV function. The relationship between LV geometry and LV function and the effect of LV remodeling after AVR on diastolic filling, in patients with aortic valve stenosis compared with aortic regurgitation, are largely unknown.Nineteen patients with aortic valve disease (12 aortic valve stenosis, 7 aortic regurgitation) were studied using magnetic resonance imaging to assess LV geometry and LV function before and 9 +/- 3 months after AVR. Ten age-matched healthy males served as control subjects.

RESULTS: Before AVR, the ratio between left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) was only increased in patients with aortic valve stenosis (1.37 +/- 0.16 g/ml) compared with control subjects (0.93 +/- 0.08 g/ml, p < 0.05). After AVR, LVMI/LVEDVI decreased significantly in aortic valve stenosis (to 1.15 +/- 0.14 g/ml, p < 0.0001), but increased significantly in aortic regurgitation (1.02 +/- 0.20 g/ml to 1.44 +/- 0.27 g/ml, p < 0.0001). Before AVR, diastolic filling was impaired in both aortic valve stenosis and aortic regurgitation. Early after AVR, diastolic filling improved in patients with aortic valve stenosis, whereas patients with aortic regurgitation showed a deterioration in diastolic filling.

CONCLUSIONS: Early after AVR, patients with aortic valve stenosis show a decrease in both LVMI and LVMI/LVEDVI and an improvement in diastolic filling, whereas in patients with aortic regurgitation, LVMI decreases less rapidly than LVEDVI, causing concentric remodeling of the LV, most likely explaining the observed deterioration of diastolic filling in these patients.

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