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Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and phenotypic features in 30 patients with conotruncal heart defects.

This report describes the dysmorphic features and frequency of 22q11.2 deletion (del22q11) in 30 Turkish patients with conotruncal heart defects (CTHDs). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed deletions in the 22q11.2 region in nine (30%) individuals. The CTHDs in this group were tetralogy of Fallot (four cases), double-outlet right ventricle (DORV) (two cases), transposition of great arteries (two cases), and ventricular septal defect (VSD) associated with other CTHDs (one case). The frequency of del22q11 in the study group was relatively high because many of the patients with dysmorphic findings also had cardiac anomalies involving the pulmonary artery, ductus arteriosus, or the aortic arch and its main branches. Twenty of the 30 patients exhibited several dysmorphic findings. Two of the nine patients with del22q11 exhibited no apparent dysmorphic features other than sacral dimple. Interestingly, one of the patients with del22q11 had a phenotypic appearance similar to that seen in oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS). This individual had left microtia, atresia of the external meatus, mandibular asymmetry, and peripheral facial nerve paralysis. His mental development was normal and there were no abnormalities on ophthalmological examination. The CTHDs in this patient were situs inversus dextrocardia, DORV, pulmonary stenosis, and VSD. Radiographs of this patient showed platybasia, complete fusion of C2-C3, and posterior fusion of the T1-T2 vertebrae. This particular case indicates that the phenotypic features of del22q11 and OAVS may overlap.

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