Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor enhances whereas prostaglandin E2 inhibits the production of interferon-induced protein of 10 kDa in epidermoid carcinoma A431

Naoko Kanda, Shinichi Watanabe
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2002, 119 (5): 1080-9
Interferon-induced protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) induces antitumor immunity. Cyclooxygenase-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are overexpressed in tumor cells, which may suppress antitumor immunity. We examined the in vitro effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS398 on IP-10 production in human epidermoid carcinoma A431. NS398 enhanced interferon-gamma-induced IP-10 secretion, mRNA expression, and promoter activation in A431, and exogenous PGE2 antagonized the enhancement. Interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) on IP-10 promoter was responsible for the transcriptional regulation by NS398 and PGE2. NS398 enhanced interferon-gamma-induced transcription through ISRE and binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1alpha (STAT1alpha to ISRE in A431, and PGE2 antagonized the enhancement. NS398 enhanced interferon-gamma-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1alpha, Janus tyrosine kinase 1, and Janus tyrosine kinase 2, and PGE2 antagonized the enhancement. PGE2-mediated suppression of IP-10 synthesis was counteracted by adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 and protein kinase A inhibitor H-89, and PGE2 receptor EP4 antagonist AH23848B. AH23848B, SQ22536, and H-89 counteracted the PGE2-mediated suppression of ISRE-dependent transcription, STAT1alpha binding to ISRE, and tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1alpha, Janus tyrosine kinase 1, and Janus tyrosine kinase 2. PGE2 increased intracellular cAMP level and protein kinase A activity in A431 pretreated with NS398, and AH23848B blocked the effects of PGE2. These results suggest that A431-derived PGE2 may generate cAMP signal via EP4 in A431, which may activate protein kinase A, and may resultantly inhibit interferon-gamma-induced STAT1alpha activation and IP-10 synthesis. The results also suggest that NS398 may restore IP-10 synthesis by preventing PGE2 production in A431 and thus may be therapeutically useful for skin cancer.

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