JOURNAL ARTICLE

Gender differences in long-term posttraumatic stress disorder outcomes after major trauma: women are at higher risk of adverse outcomes than men

Troy L Holbrook, David B Hoyt, Murray B Stein, William J Sieber
Journal of Trauma 2002, 53 (5): 882-8
12435938

BACKGROUND: The importance of psychological morbidity after major trauma, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is continuing to gain attention in trauma outcomes research. The Trauma Recovery Project is a large prospective epidemiologic study designed to examine multiple outcomes after major trauma, including quality of life (QoL) and PTSD. Patient outcomes were assessed at discharge and at 6, 12, and 18 months after discharge. The specific objectives of the present report are to examine gender differences in prolonged PTSD (L-PTSD) and to assess the impact of PTSD by gender on QoL at the 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up time points in the Trauma Recovery Project population.

METHODS: Between December 1, 1993, and September 1, 1996, 1,048 eligible trauma patients triaged to four participating trauma center hospitals in the San Diego Regionalized Trauma System were enrolled in the study. The enrollment criteria for the study included the following: age 18 years and older; admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or greater; and length of stay greater than 24 hours. QoL was measured after injury using the Quality of Well-being (QWB) scale, a sensitive index to the well end of the functioning continuum (range: 0 = death to 1.000 = optimum functioning). Early symptoms of acute stress reaction (SASR) at discharge were assessed using the Impact of Events Scale (score > 30 = SASR). PTSD at 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up was diagnosed using standardized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. PTSD (L-PTSD) was diagnosed if full or partial (F + P) or full (F) PTSD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria were present at all follow-up time points.

RESULTS: PTSD (L-PTSD) (F + P) was diagnosed in 35% (221 of 627) of patients at follow-up. PTSD (L-PTSD) (F) was present in 32% (153 of 627). Women were at significantly higher risk of PTSD (F + P) (odds ratio = 2.4, p = 0.001) and PTSD (F) (odds ratio = 2.8, p = 0.001) than men. The association of gender with PTSD was independent of mechanism and injury event-related factors such as perceived threat to life. In multivariate logistic regression, female gender, perceived threat to life, and SASR were strongly and independently associated with PTSD risk. Women were also at risk for worse QWB outcomes; beginning at discharge through the 18-month follow-up, women had significantly lower QWB scores at each follow-up time than men, regardless of prolonged PTSD status.

CONCLUSION: These results provide important new evidence that high rates of PTSD persist in the long-term aftermath of major trauma. The association of gender with PTSD was independent of mechanism and injury event-related factors such as perceived threat to life. Within categories of specific mechanism of injury and injury event-related factors, women were at significantly higher risk of prolonged PTSD onset. Prolonged PTSD was associated with significantly reduced quality of life in both men and women, with markedly worse QWB outcomes in women regardless of prolonged PTSD status.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
12435938
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"