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Classification, investigation, and management of midfoot sprains: Lisfranc injuries in the athlete.

BACKGROUND: Midfoot sprains in athletes represent a spectrum of injuries to the Lisfranc ligament complex, from partial sprains with no displacement to complete tears with frank diastasis. Treatment of these injuries varies from the treatment of high-velocity injuries seen in nonathletes.

PURPOSE: We wanted to report the outcome of treatment in athletes with Lisfranc injuries classified according to our system.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

METHODS: Weightbearing radiographs and bone scintigrams were used to diagnose midfoot sprains in 15 athletes who were treated surgically or nonoperatively according to the following classification: nonoperative management for stage I injuries (undisplaced) and anatomic reduction with fixation for stage II (diastasis with no arch height loss) and stage III (diastasis with arch height loss) injuries.

RESULTS: We achieved an excellent outcome in 93% of 15 athletes with midfoot sprains at an average follow-up of 27 months (range, 9 to 72).

CONCLUSIONS: Weightbearing radiographs and bone scintigrams are sensitive, reproducible, and relatively inexpensive methods of investigation of these injuries. Restoration and maintenance of the anatomic alignment of the Lisfranc joint is the key to appropriate treatment of injury to the midfoot.

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