Effect of archwire size and material on the resistance to sliding of self-ligating brackets with second-order angulation in the dry state

Glenys A Thorstenson, Robert P Kusy
American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2002, 122 (3): 295-305
When paired with a particular self-ligating bracket design, the material and the geometric characteristics of an archwire influence its resistance to sliding. Four designs of self-ligating brackets (1 with a slide, 3 with clips) were coupled with 5 types of archwires: 14-mil round austenitic nickel-titanium, 16 x 22-mil rectangular austenitic nickel-titanium, 19 x 25-mil rectangular austenitic nickel-titanium, 19 x 25-mil rectangular martensitic nickel-titanium, and 19 x 25-mil rectangular stainless steel. The resistance to sliding (RS) of each archwire-bracket couple was measured at second-order angles between -9 degrees and 9 degrees. Interbracket distances of 8 and 18 mm between the test bracket and the adjacent brackets mimicked closure of a premolar extraction. When clearance exists, the RS is negligible for self-ligating brackets with slides coupled to any size of wire as well as for those with clips when coupled to wires that do not contact the clip. Once the wire attains a certain size and contacts the clip, the RS depends on the archwire size, the bracket design, and the materials of the couple. When coupled with the 16 x 22-mil wire, the brackets with clips applied normal forces ranging from a low of 5.6 centi-Newtons (cN) (1 cN = 1 g) to a high of 230 cN. When clearance disappears, the RS increased proportionally with the second-order angle. The 19 x 25-mil stainless steel wires, which were the most stiff, increased at rates between 75 and 84 cN/degree; the 14-mil austenitic nickel-titanium wires, which were the least stiff, increased at rates from 2.6 to 5.4 cN/degree. The treatment objectives for a particular patient at a specific stage should determine the appropriate archwire-bracket combination.

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