1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3-stimulated osteoclast formation in spleen-osteoblast cocultures is mediated in part by enhanced IL-1 alpha and receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand production in osteoblasts

Sun-Kyeong Lee, Judy Kalinowski, Sandra Jastrzebski, Joseph A Lorenzo
Journal of Immunology 2002 September 1, 169 (5): 2374-80
We examined the ability of 1,25 (OH)(2) vitamin D(3) (Vit D) to stimulate osteoclast-like cell (OCL) formation in cocultures of spleen cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts from wild-type (WT) and IL-1R type 1-deficient (knockout; KO) mice. Vit D dose dependently increased OCL in cocultures containing WT osteoblasts. In contrast, there was a 90% reduction in OCL numbers in cocultures containing KO osteoblasts. In cocultures with either WT or KO osteoblasts, treatment with Vit D increased receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand mRNA by 17-, 19-, or 3.5-fold, respectively. Vit D decreased osteoprotegerin mRNA to undetectable in all groups. Intracellular IL-1alpha protein increased after Vit D treatment in cocultures containing WT, but not KO osteoblasts. We also examined direct effects of Vit D, IL-1alpha, and their combination on gene expression in primary osteoblasts. In WT cells, Vit D and IL-1 stimulated receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand mRNA expression by 3- and 4-fold, respectively, and their combination produced a 7-fold increase. Inhibition of osteoprotegerin mRNA in WT cells was partial with either agent alone and greatest with their combination. In KO cells, only Vit D stimulated a response. IL-1 alone increased IL-1alpha protein expression in WT osteoblasts. However, in combination with Vit D, there was a synergistic response (100-fold increase). In KO cultures, there were no effects of IL-1, Vit D, or their combination on IL-1alpha protein. These results demonstrate interactions between IL-1 and Vit D in primary osteoblasts that appear important in both regulation of IL-1alpha production and the ability of Vit D to support osteoclastogenesis.

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