COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, P.H.S.
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Retinoic acid receptor alpha2 is a growth suppressor epigenetically silenced in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

Retinoic acid (RA) receptor (RAR) beta2 has been shown to be underexpressed in human breast cancer cells, including MCF-7 cells, and recent reports have suggested that hypermethylation of the RAR beta2 promoter and 5'-UTR is the underlying cause. Here we show that RAR alpha2 is also underexpressed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, at both the message and the protein level, relative to normal or nontumorigenic breast epithelial cells. Bisulfite sequencing of the CpG island in the RAR alpha2 promoter revealed highly penetrant and uniform cytosine methylation in MCF-7 cells. Pretreatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, azacytidine, followed by treatment with RA and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, resulted in partial promoter demethylation and RAR alpha2 induction, which strongly suggested that promoter hypermethylation is responsible for RAR alpha2 underexpression. We compared the outcome of ectopic expression in MCF-7 cells of matched levels of RAR alpha2 and RAR beta2. On the basis of a clonogenic assay, RAR alpha2 displayed ligand-dependent growth-suppressive activity similar to that of RARb eta2; thus, 10 and 20 nM RA inhibited clonogenic growth by 52 and 80%, respectively, in RAR alpha2-transfected cells compared with 75 and 77%, respectively, in RAR beta2-transfected cells. We conclude that the silencing of the RAR alpha2 promoter by hypermethylation may play a contributory role in the dysregulation of RA signaling in mammary tumorigenesis.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app