High concentrations of bioactive glass material (BioGran) vs. autogenous bone for sinus floor elevation

Ette S Tadjoedin, Gert L de Lange, D M Lyaruu, Luit Kuiper, Elisabeth H Burger
Clinical Oral Implants Research 2002, 13 (4): 428-36
In this study, high concentrations of bioactive glass (BG) particles were compared with autogenous bone in their capacity to augment maxillary bone when grafted in the human sinus floor using a split mouth design. Three female patients with severe maxillary atrophy underwent bilateral sinus floor elevation and bone grafting using 80-100% BG particles (300-355 microm in size) mixed with 20% to 0% iliac crest bone particles at one (experimental) side, and 100% iliac crest derived bone particles at the other (control) side. A total of 22 bone biopsies was taken at the time of fixture installation; that is, at 4, 6 and 15 months after grafting, and processed for histology and histomorphometry. At the control (autogenous bone) sides, trabecular bone amounted to 39% of the biopsy volume in the graft (site) at 4 months, almost 41% at 6 months, and 42% at 15 months. This bone contained viable osteocytes and was mostly of mature, lamellar type. At the experimental (BG particles) sides, the graft consisted of 27% of mostly woven (and some lamellar) bone at 4 months, 36% (woven and lamellar) bone at 6 months, and 39% (mainly lamellar) bone at 15 months. The grafted BG particles started to excavate at 4 months and their centers gradually filled with bone tissue. As a consequence, the volume of BG particles in the biopsy decreased from 29% at 4 months to 15% at 6 months and 8% at 15 months. The BG particles appeared to resorb within 1-2 years by dissolution rather than by osteoclastic activity. Parameters for bone turnover (% osteoid surface, % resorption surface) indicated that bone remodeling was very active at both experimental and control sides, during more than 6 months. These results suggest that mixtures of mainly (80-90%) BG particles and some (10-20%) autogenous bone are effective for bone regeneration in the augmented sinus offer 6 months healing time, while about 12 months healing time is needed for 100% BG particles.

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