CYP2D6 inhibition by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: analysis of achievable steady-state plasma concentrations and the effect of ultrarapid metabolism at CYP2D6

Y W Francis Lam, Andrea Gaedigk, Larry Ereshefsky, Cara L Alfaro, Joe Simpson
Pharmacotherapy 2002, 22 (8): 1001-6

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the correlation between plasma concentrations of four commonly administered selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the magnitude of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 inhibition.

DESIGN: Prospective analysis.

SETTING: University-affiliated research laboratory.

PATIENTS: Thirty-two healthy, drug-free volunteers.

INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomized to four groups and received daily administration of either fluoxetine 60 mg (as a loading dose), fluvoxamine 100 mg, paroxetine 20 mg, or sertraline 100 mg for 8 days.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The urinary concentration ratio of dextromethorphan:dextrorphan (interpreted as an in vivo index of CYP2D6 activity) was determined for each subject before and after the 8 days of receiving SSRIs. Plasma SSRI trough concentrations were measured on days 6-9. The CYP2D6 genotype was determined in a subject with an undetectable paroxetine concentration. Inhibition of CYP2D6 correlated significantly with plasma concentrations of paroxetine and fluoxetine. In contrast, no significant correlations emerged between CYP2D6 inhibition and plasma concentrations of sertraline or fluvoxamine. The subject with an undetectable paroxetine concentration was found to carry at least three functional CYP2D6 genes.

CONCLUSIONS: For paroxetine and fluoxetine, plasma concentrations and dosage strongly influence the magnitude of enzyme inhibition. The potential of paroxetine (a CYP2D6 substrate) as an inhibitor may be affected by the genotypes and metabolic capacities of individual subjects.

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