Analysis of improvements, full responses, remission and toxicity in rheumatoid patients treated with step-up combination therapy (methotrexate, cyclosporin A, sulphasalazine) or monotherapy for three years

G F Ferraccioli, E Gremese, P Tomietto, G Favret, R Damato, E Di Poi
Rheumatology 2002, 41 (8): 892-8

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate two monotherapies followed by step-up combination therapy with two or three complementary drugs in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in comparison with sulphasalazine (SSZ) alone.

METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six consecutive patients with early active RA were enrolled in this open controlled clinical trial. The primary end-point was 50% improvement according to the ACR criteria (ACR50) at 6, 12 or 18 months. The secondary end-points were a full response (Magnusson criteria) and/or remission (ACR criteria) at 3 yr. Methotrexate (MTX) (group 1), cyclosporin A (CsA) (group 2) or SSZ (group 3) was used first. After 6 months, a combination of two drugs (CsA and MTX) was employed in groups 1 and 2. SSZ was added after 12 months if improvement was less than ACR50 with the combination. Group 3 continued with SSZ alone.

RESULTS: After 6 months, 57% of patients in group 1, 31% of group 2 (MTX vs CsA, P=0.002) and 33% of group 3 (MTX vs SSZ, P=0.01) had reached ACR50 improvement according to intention-to-treat analysis. At month 12 after starting a drug combination, 67% of group 1 and 76% of group 2 had reached ACR50 compared with 24% of group 3. At the 18-month follow-up, 90% of group 1 and 88% of group 2 but only 24% of group 3 had reached ACR50. After 18 months, 62% of group 1, 60% of group 2 and 48% of group 3 showed side-effects and three, five and eight patients in the three groups respectively had dropped out of the study. At the 3-yr follow-up, 9% of the patients in groups 1 and 2 and 7% of group 3 were in remission according to the ACR criteria; according to the Magnusson criteria, 40% showed a full response in groups 1 and 2 but only 21% did so in group 3.

CONCLUSION: MTX appears to be the fastest-acting agent. A step-up approach with MTX plus CsA plus SSZ led to a 50% improvement according to the ACR criteria in most patients. After 3 yr, 40% of patients receiving combination therapy and 21% of patients receiving monotherapy showed a full response, while 9 and 7% respectively attained remission.

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