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Community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia complicated with loculated empyema in an infant with selective IgA deficiency.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is widely prevalent in the hospital environment, especially in intensive care units. Selective IgA deficiency is characterized by a serum IgA level less than 5 mg/dl with no deficiency of other immunoglobulins. The occurrence of community-acquired P. aeruginosa pneumonia with empyema is rare in pediatric patients. We present a 10-month-old male infant who was referred due to persistent fever and progressive respiratory distress for 1 week. A chest radiograph revealed a right lobar pneumonia with pleural effusion. P. aeruginosa that was subsequently isolated from both blood and pleural effusion cultures. The patient received treatment with ceftazidime and intrapleural instillation of urokinase to promote drainage of empyema. Subsequent immunological screening revealed a very low serum IgA level (<5 mg/dl). We present our experience in successfully treating a loculated empyema with intrapleural instillation of urokinase in an infant. It is also important for pediatricians to be aware that they should be alert for the patient who present with respiratory infections due to unusual organisms. An advanced immunological study to investigate the underlying disorders in these patients is mandatory.

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