Regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin mRNA expression by parathyroid hormone is predominantly mediated by the protein kinase a pathway in murine bone marrow cultures

S-K Lee, J A Lorenzo
Bone 2002, 31 (1): 252-9
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) mRNA and inhibits osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA expression in murine bone marrow cultures. To understand the mechanisms influencing these responses, we investigated the role of the protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in the regulation of RANKL and OPG mRNA expression in murine bone marrow cultures. Murine bone marrow cells were stimulated with bovine PTH(1-34) and (1-34) amide, which activate both pathways; PTH(3-34), which more selectively activates the PKC and calcium pathways; and human PTH (1-31), which stimulates adenylyl cyclase, but not protein kinase C. We also examined agents that more directly activate either the PKA pathway (forskolin [FSK] and 8-bromo cAMP [8-Br-cAMP]) or the PKC pathway (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA]) in murine bone marrow cultures. After 1 h, RANKL mRNA expression was stimulated to a similar degree by agents that activate either or both the PKA and PKC pathways. However, this effect was sustained for 24 h only with agents that stimulated PKA. OPG mRNA expression was inhibited by all agents that stimulated PKA at 6 h. In contrast, PKC-specific stimulators [PMA and bPTH(3-34)] had no effect on OPG regulation in this culture system. To determine the involvement of the PKC signaling pathway in responses of RANKL, bone marrow cells were pretreated with PMA for 24 h and then treated with PTH(1-34) or FSK for 2 h. PMA pretreatment did not alter the ability of PTH or FSK to stimulate RANKL or inhibit OPG mRNA expression. Treatment of cells with H-89, a PKA inhibitor, significantly reduced the ability of PTH and FSK to induce RANKL and inhibit OPG mRNA expression. Calphostin C, a PKC inhibitor, significantly reduced PMA-stimulated RANKL mRNA expression without altering PTH- or FSK-mediated effects on RANKL or OPG mRNA. Cycloheximide, an inhibitor for protein synthesis, inhibited PTH-stimulated RANKL mRNA expression by 60% without altering the effect of PTH on OPG mRNA expression. To examine the involvement of prostaglandin in PMA-mediated responses, cells were treated with indomethacin, a nonspecific prostaglandin G/H synthase (PGHS) inhibitor, or NS-398, a selective inhibitor of PGHS-2. Neither PGHS inhibitor altered PMA-induced effects on RANKL and OPG mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that the PKA pathway is predominantly involved in the effects of PTH on RANKL mRNA expression in murine bone marrow cultures, but there is also a PKC-mediated response, which is not sustained. Inhibition of OPG by PTH appears to be a selective PKA response.

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