CLINICAL TRIAL
CLINICAL TRIAL, PHASE III
JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Efficacy and safety of memantine in patients with mild to moderate vascular dementia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (MMM 300).

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Based on the hypothesis of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity (excitotoxicity) in cerebral ischemia, this study examined the efficacy and tolerability of memantine, an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, in the treatment of mild to moderate vascular dementia.

METHODS: In this multicenter, 28-week trial carried out in France, 321 patients received 10 mg/d memantine or placebo twice a day; 288 patients were valid for intent-to-treat analysis. Patients had to meet the criteria for probable vascular dementia and have a Mini-Mental State (MMSE) score between 12 and 20 at inclusion. The 2 primary end points were the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimers Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) and the global Clinician's Interview Based Impression of Change (CIBIC-plus).

RESULTS: After 28 weeks, the mean ADAS-cog scores were significantly improved relative to placebo. In the intention-to-treat population, the memantine group mean score had gained an average of 0.4 points, whereas the placebo group mean score had declined by 1.6 points, ie, a difference of 2.0 points (95% confidence interval, 0.49 to 3.60). The response rate for CIBIC-plus, defined as improved or stable, was 60% with memantine compared with 52% with placebo (P=0.227, intention to treat). Among the secondary efficacy parameters, which were analyzed in the per-protocol subset, MMSE was significantly improved with memantine compared with deterioration with placebo (P=0.003). The Gottfries-Brane-Steen Scale intellectual function subscore and the Nurses' Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients disturbing behavior dimension also showed differences in favor of memantine (P=0.04 and P=0.07, respectively). Memantine was well tolerated with a frequency of adverse events comparable to placebo.

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mild to moderate vascular dementia, memantine 20 mg/d improved cognition consistently across different cognitive scales, with at least no deterioration in global functioning and behavior. It was devoid of concerning side effects.

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