JOURNAL ARTICLE

A role for inducible costimulator protein in the CD28- independent mechanism of resistance to Toxoplasma gondii

Eric N Villegas, Linda A Lieberman, Nicola Mason, Sarah L Blass, Valerie P Zediak, Robert Peach, Tom Horan, Steve Yoshinaga, Christopher A Hunter
Journal of Immunology 2002 July 15, 169 (2): 937-43
12097399
Long-term resistance to Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on the development of parasite-specific T cells that produce IFN-gamma. CD28 is a costimulatory molecule important for optimal activation of T cells, but CD28(-/-) mice are resistant to T. gondii, demonstrating that CD28-independent mechanisms regulate T cell responses during toxoplasmosis. The identification of the B7-related protein 1/inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) pathway and its ability to regulate the production of IFN-gamma suggested that this pathway may be involved in the CD28-independent activation of T cells required for resistance to T. gondii. In support of this hypothesis, infection of wild-type or CD28(-/-) mice with T. gondii resulted in the increased expression of ICOS by activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. In addition, both costimulatory pathways contributed to the in vitro production of IFN-gamma by parasite-specific T cells and when both pathways were blocked, there was an additive effect that resulted in almost complete inhibition of IFN-gamma production. Although in vivo blockade of the ICOS costimulatory pathway did not result in the early mortality of wild-type mice infected with T. gondii, it did lead to increased susceptibility of CD28(-/-) mice to T. gondi associated with reduced serum levels of IFN-gamma, increased parasite burden, and increased mortality compared with the control group. Together, these results identify a critical role for ICOS in the protective Th1-type response required for resistance to T. gondii and suggest that ICOS and CD28 are parallel costimulatory pathways, either of which is sufficient to mediate resistance to this intracellular pathogen.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
12097399
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"