Second- and third-hand chloroplasts in dinoflagellates: phylogeny of oxygen-evolving enhancer 1 (PsbO) protein reveals replacement of a nuclear-encoded plastid gene by that of a haptophyte tertiary endosymbiont

Ken-ichiro Ishida, Beverley R Green
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002 July 9, 99 (14): 9294-9
Several dinoflagellate species have plastids that more closely resemble those of an unrelated algal group, the haptophytes, suggesting these plastids have been obtained by tertiary endosymbiosis. Because both groups are photosynthetic, all of the genes for nuclear-encoded plastid proteins might be supplied by the dinoflagellate host or some of them might have been replaced by haptophyte genes. Sequences of the conserved nuclear psbO gene were obtained from the haptophyte Isochrysis galbana, the peridinin-containing dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra, and the 19'hexanoyloxy-fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Phylogenetic analysis of the oxygen-evolving-enhancer (PsbO) proteins confirmed that in K. brevis the original peridinin-type plastid was replaced by that of a haptophyte, an alga which had previously acquired a red algal chloroplast by secondary endosymbiosis. It showed clearly that during this tertiary symbiogenesis the original psbO gene in the dinoflagellate nucleus was replaced by a psbO gene from the haptophyte nucleus. The phylogenetic analysis also confirmed that the origin of the peridinin-type dinoflagellate plastid was indeed a red alga.

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