Effects of mild hypothermia on survival and serum cytokines in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in rats

Rainer Kentner, Florence M Rollwagen, Stephan Prueckner, Wilhelm Behringer, Xianren Wu, Jason Stezoski, Peter Safar, Samuel A Tisherman
Shock 2002, 17 (6): 521-6
Previous studies have suggested benefit of mild hypothermia during hemorrhagic shock (HS). This finding needs additional confirmation and investigation into possible mechanisms. Proinflammatory cytokines are mediators of multiple organ failure following traumatic hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. We hypothesized that mild hypothermia would improve survival from HS and may affect the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response in a rat model of uncontrolled HS. Under light halothane anesthesia, uncontrolled HS was induced by blood withdrawal of 3 mL/100 g over 15 min followed by tail amputation. Hypotensive (limited) fluid resuscitation (to prevent mean arterial pressure [MAP] from decreasing below 40 mmHg) with blood was started at 30 min and continued to 90 min. After hemostasis and resuscitation with initially shed blood and Ringer's solution, the rats were observed for 72 h. The animals were randomized into two HS groups (n = 10 each): normothermia (38 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C) and mild hypothermia (34 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C) from HS 30 min until resuscitation time (RT) 60 min; and a sham group (n = 3). Venous blood samples were taken at baseline, RT 60 min, and days 1, 2, and 3. Serum interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha concentrations were quantified by ELISA. Values are expressed as median and interquartile range. Survival time by life table analysis was greater in the hypothermia group (P = 0.04). Survival rates to 72 h were 1 of 10 vs. 6 of 10 in the normothermia vs. hypothermia groups, respectively (P = 0.057). All cytokine concentrations were significantly increased from baseline at RT 60 min in both HS groups, but not in the shams. At RT 60 min, in the normothermia vs. hypothermia groups, respectively, IL-1beta levels were 185 (119-252) vs. 96 (57-135) pg/mL (P = 0.15); IL-6 levels were 2242 (1903-3777) vs. 1746 (585-2480) pg/mL (P = 0.20); TNF-alpha levels were 97 (81-156) vs. 394 (280-406) pg/mL (P= 0.02); and IL-10 levels were 1.7 (0-13.3) vs. 15.8 (1.9-23.0) pg/mL (P = 0.09). IL-10 remained increased until day 3 in the hypothermia group. High IL-1beta levels (>100 pg/mL) at RT 60 min were associated with death before 72 h (odds ratio 66, C.I. 3.5-1255). We conclude that mild hypothermia improves survival time after uncontrolled HS. Uncontrolled HS induces a robust proinflammatory cytokine response. The unexpected increase in TNF-alpha with hypothermia deserves further investigation.

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