COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

Clinical outcome and quantitative evaluation of periprosthetic bone-remodeling of an uncemented femoral component with taper design. A prospective study

R P Pitto, M Schramm, D Hohmann, R Schmidt
La Chirurgia Degli Organi di Movimento 2001, 86 (2): 87-97
12025051
The rationale of uncemented taper stems is based on fixation in the proximal portion of the femoral diaphysis, a self-locking principle, and a low modulus of elasticity. The aim of this study was to evaluate a collarless femoral component designed to be a three-dimensional taper for press-fit insertion with regard to clinical outcome, efficacy of fixation, incidence of osteolysis, and periprosthetic bone-remodeling. The first 48 consecutive patients (50 hips) with osteoarthritis who had had primary total hip arthroplasty using the Cerafit Multicone stem and the Cerafit Triradius-M press-fit cup with alumina-alumina pairing (Ceraver Osteal, Paris, France) were followed-up for a mean of 2.3 years (2 to 2.5 years). The mean age of patients at index operations was 52.5 years. Current criteria were used for clinical and radiological assessment. Quantitative evaluation of periprosthetic bone-remodeling was prospectively assessed using computed tomography. Clinical and radiological follow-up was obtained in all hips. Forty-nine hips (98%) were clinically rated good or excellent, one hip (2%) was rated fair, owing to a persisting limp. The mean preoperative Harris Hip Score was rated 62, and it has improved to 93.5 at the time of follow-up. One hip (2%) had marked postoperative thigh pain. This pain had disappeared at 3-month follow-up. All stems showed radiological signs of stable fixation by bone ingrowth. No stem required revision. Thirty-four hips (68%) had either no change in femoral bone density or only patchy loss of bone density isolated to Gruen zones 1 and 7. Sixteen hips (32%) had some reduction of bone density isolated to zone 1. Radiolucencies without progression were found in zones 1 and 7 in 3 hips (6%), and in zone 1 alone in 3 other hips (6%). A slight cortical hypertrophy was seen in 3 hips (6%). Twenty-three hips (46%) developed radiographic appearance of bone apposition at the stem tip as partial pedestal (19 hips) and as complete pedestal (4 hips). No signs of cup loosening were detected at follow-up. Twenty-four patients (25 hips) were eligible for computed tomography. The mean decrease of the overall bone mineral density in the metaphyseal portion of the femur one year after insertion of the stem was rated 15.4%, and the mean decrease of the cortical bone mineral density was rated 17.2%. On the other hand, a mean decrease of the cortical bone mineral density of less than 5% was observed in the diaphyseal portion of the femur around the implant. The clinical and radiological results of the Cerafit Multicone stem at a mean follow-up of 2.3 years are very promising and do not contrast with those achieved using other uncemented stems with tapered design. Furthermore, results of quantitative evaluation of periprosthetic bone-remodeling were considered satisfactory favourably with others reported in the literature using stems inserted without cemented.

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