JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Gastrointestinal factors in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

The objective of this review is to outline gastrointestinal factors that may be relevant to nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Gastric neuromuscular dysfunctions of the stomach include abnormalities in gastric myoelectrical activity, gastric tone, and contractility, all of which may result in gastroparesis. These abnormalities in gastric neural activity and smooth muscle function are associated with nausea and vomiting in nonpregnant patients. Gastric dysrhythmias are disturbances of gastric pacesetter potential patterns that are present during the nausea of motion sickness, drug-induced nausea, in patients with diabetic gastropathy, and women with nausea of pregnancy. In pregnant women with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, standard gastrointestinal diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux, peptic ulcers, and cholecystitis must be considered. A diagnostic approach and therapeutic options for treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy based on understanding of gastric neuromuscular dysfunction is outlined.

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