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Fast MR imaging in obstetrics.

Ultrasonography (US) is the initial imaging modality of choice for evaluation of patients in obstetrics. However, the results of US are not always sufficient. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which uses no ionizing radiation, may be an ideal method for further evaluation. Although MR imaging is not recommended during the first trimester and use of contrast material is not recommended in pregnant patients, fast MR imaging is useful in various obstetric settings and can provide more specific information with excellent tissue contrast and multiplanar views. In pregnant patients with acute conditions, various diseases (eg, red degeneration of a uterine leiomyoma) may be diagnosed. MR imaging allows characterization of pelvic masses discovered during pregnancy and diagnosis of postpartum complications (eg, abscess, hematoma, ovarian vein thrombosis). In pregnant patients with hydronephrosis, MR urography can demonstrate the site of obstruction and the cause (eg, a ureteral stone). MR pelvimetry may be beneficial in cases of breech presentation. Contrast material-enhanced dynamic MR imaging allows one to evaluate the vascularity of a placental polyp, detect the viable component of a gestational trophoblastic tumor, and diagnose a uterine arteriovenous malformation. MR imaging enables diagnosis of rare forms of ectopic pregnancy and early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

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