JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Intracellular cytokine production by Th1/Th2 lymphocytes and monocytes of children with symptomatic transient hypogammaglobulinaemia of infancy (THI) and selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD).

Intracellular expression of several cytokines was assessed in lymphocytes and monocytes of children with transient hypogammaglobulinaemia of infancy (THI) and selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD). THI was characterized by an increased frequency of CD3+/CD4+ lymphocytes expressing tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), TNF-beta and interleukin 10 (IL-10), while in SIgAD elevated numbers of these cells containing TNF-alpha and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were observed. No changes in the number of CD4+ T cells expressing IL-4 in both diseases were noted. The proportion of CD33+ monocytes containing TNF-alpha both in THI and SIgAD was unchanged. The secretion of IL-12 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with THI and SIgAD was significantly elevated and associated with an increased frequency of IL-12 expressing monocytes in THI but not in SIgAD. IL-18 secretion was slightly, but not significantly, elevated in both diseases. Intracellular Th1 and Th2 type cytokines within CD3+/CD4+ lymphocytes were also determined in the normal blood donors that showed high or low production of IgG and IgA in vitro. In low producers of IgG an increased proportion of CD3+/CD4+ cells expressing TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma was found, while in low IgA responders only elevated TNF-alpha positive CD3+/CD4+ cells were observed. These results suggest that THI and SIgAD may represent diseases with an excessive Th1 type response that is associated with an up-regulation of IL-12 secretion and, at least in THI, elevated numbers of monocytes expressing intracellular IL-12. Up-regulation of IL-12 may be the essential factor in the patomechanism(s) of these diseases as already described in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).

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