Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Ordinary and opportunistic enteropathogens associated with diarrhea in Senegalese adults in relation to human immunodeficiency virus serostatus.

OBJECTIVES: A survey was conducted in Dakar, Senegal, to identify major types and prevalences of bacteria, parasites, fungi, and Rotaviruses associated with diarrhea in relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus with the goal to provide guidance to physicians for case management.

METHODS: Etiologic agents were identified in a case control study: cases were HIV-infected patients with diarrhea (HIV+ D+) and HIV seronegative patients with diarrhea (HIV D+); controls were HIV-infected patients without diarrhea (HIV+ D ) and seronegative controls without diarrhea (HID D ). Ordinary enteric pathogens were identified by conventional methods. Different Escherichia coli pathotypes were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), identification of HEp-2 cell adherence pattern, Sereny test, GM1-ELISA, and the suckling mouse assay. Opportunistic parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Microsporidium, were identified by the Kinyoun method and trichromic stain of Weber, respectively. Rotaviruses were identified with a commercial latex agglutination kit. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by the disk diffusion method.

RESULTS: Among the 594 patients examined, 158 were HIV+ D+, 121 were HIV2 D+, 160 were HIV+ D , and 155 were HIV D . The main etiologies of diarrhea were different according to HIV serostatus of patients. In immunocompetent adults the main causes of diarrhea were Shigella sp (12.4%), Entamoeba histolytica(10.7%), Salmonella enterica (6.6%), and Giardia (4.9%). In the immunocompromised host the more frequent pathogens were enteroaggregative E. coli (19.6%), Microsporidium (9.4%), Cryptosporidium sp (8.2%), Rotavirus (8.2%), Shigella sp (7.6%), Candida albicans (7.6%), E. histolytica (5.1%), S. enterica (4.4%), and Isospora belli (4.4%). Also, Blastocystis hominis has to be considered as an opportunistic parasite, because it was identified only in HIV-infected patients, with higher prevalence in adults with diarrhea (2.5% in HIV+ D+ patients; 0.6% in HIV+ D patients). High level of asymptomatic carriage of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and some cases of multiple infections were observed. Fungi, Cryptosporidium sp and Microsporidium sp, were often identified in patients with low CD4 counts (range, 79 250 cells/mL). Independently from HIV-serostatus, CD4 count was lower in diarrheic persons, suggesting that diarrhea is a debilitating illness and that effective management of diarrhea can prevent immunosuppression. Isolated enteropathogenic strains displayed high resistance to most antibiotics used in Senegal for treating diarrhea (ampicillin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole); they were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, and norfloxacin.

CONCLUSION: These epidemiologic data suggest that guidelines for the management of diarrhea during HIV infection in Dakar should be updated.

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