On-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in the elderly: predictors of adverse outcome

M Ricci, H L Karamanoukian, G Dancona, J Bergsland, T A Salerno
Journal of Cardiac Surgery 2001, 16 (6): 458-66

OBJECTIVE: To establish the role that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may have in improving perioperative outcomes of patients 70 years of age and older.

BACKGROUND: Coronary revascularization in elderly patients is associated with morbidity and mortality rates higher than those observed in younger patients. The impact of CABG without CPB on perioperative outcomes has not been clearly established.

METHODS: This retrospective, nonrandomized study consisted of 1,872 CABG patients. Of these, 1389 underwent CABG with CPB (CPB group) and 483 patients underwent CABG without CPB (off-pump group). Preoperative variables and outcomes were compared between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of mortality, stroke, and adverse outcome.

RESULTS: Demographics, Canadian Cardiovascular Society staging, operative priority, and other preoperative variables were comparable between the two groups. The prevalence of previous myocardial infarction was higher in the CPB group (62.6% vs 56.7%; p < 0.005), whereas the prevalence of calcified aorta and preoperative renal failure were higher in the off-pump group (5.4% vs 9.5%; p = 0.04 and 1.7% vs 3.3%; p = 0.04, respectively). Although the graft/patient ratio was higher in the CPB group (3.4 vs 1.9), these patients displayed more extensive coronary artery involvement. At univariate analysis, patients in the off-pump group had a higher rate of freedom from complications (88.2% vs 81.3%; p < 0.005) and a lower incidence of stroke (2.1% vs 4.2%; p = 0.034) than patients in the CPB group. Although there was a trend for a higher actual mortality in the off-pump group (4.8% vs 3.7%; p = ns), the risk adjusted mortality in this group was lower (1.9% vs 2.1%). Multivariate analysis showed that while the use of CPB correlated independently with an increased risk of overall complications, it was not associated with a higher probability of death or stroke.

CONCLUSIONS: This investigation suggests that elderly patients undergoing CABG may benefit from off-pump revascularization, as the use of CPB correlated independently with an increased risk of overall complications. However, CPB did not emerge as an independent predictor of death or stroke at multivariate analysis.

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