Pharmacokinetics and protein binding of mycophenolic acid in stable lung transplant recipients

Mary H H Ensom, Nilufar Partovi, Diane Decarie, Randall J Dumont, Guy Fradet, Robert D Levy
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 2002, 24 (2): 310-4
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) use is increasing in solid organ transplantation. Mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite of MMF, is highly protein bound and only free MPA is pharmacologically active. The average MPA free fraction in healthy adult individuals, stable renal transplant recipients, and heart transplant recipients is approximately 2 to 3%. However, no data are currently available on MPA protein binding in stable lung transplant recipients and little is known regarding MPA's pharmacokinetic characteristics after lung transplantation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile and protein binding of MPA in this patient population. Seven patients were entered into the study. On administration of a steady-state morning MMF dose, blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 hours post-dose. Total MPA concentrations were measured by a validated HPLC method with UV detection and followed by ultrafiltration of pooled samples for free MPA concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC), peak concentration (Cmax), time to peak concentration (Tmax), trough concentration (Cmin), free fraction (f), and free MPA AUC were calculated by traditional pharmacokinetic methods. Patient characteristics included; 3 males and 4 females, an average of 4.4 years post-lung transplant (range, 0.3-11.5 yr), mean (+/- SD) age of 50 +/- 10 years and weight 69 +/- 20 kg. Mean albumin concentration was 37 +/- 3 g/L and serum creatinine was 142 +/- 49 micromol/L. All patients were on cyclosporine and prednisone. MMF dosage ranged from 1 to 3 g daily (35.5 +/- 14.1 mg/kg/d; range, 15.2-60.0 mg/kg/d). Mean (+/- SD) AUC was 45.78 +/- 18.35 microg.h/mL (range, 16.56-74.22 microg.h/mL), Cmax was 17.37 +/- 7.69 microg/mL (range, 4.92-26.63 microg/mL), Tmax was 1.2 +/- 0.4 hours (range, 1.0-2.0 h), Cmin was 3.12 +/- 1.41 microg/mL (range, 1.47-4.82 microg/mL), f was 2.90 +/- 0.56% (range, 2.00-3.40%), and free MPA AUC was 1.29 +/- 0.50 microg.h/mL (range, 0.54-1.88 microg.h/mL). This is the first study to determine these pharmacokinetic characteristics of MPA in the lung transplant population. Further studies should focus on identification of MMF dosing strategies that optimize immunosuppressive efficacy and minimize toxicity in lung allograft recipients.

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