JOURNAL ARTICLE

The regulation of hypoxic genes by calcium involves c-Jun/AP-1, which cooperates with hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in response to hypoxia

Konstantin Salnikow, Thomas Kluz, Max Costa, David Piquemal, Zoya N Demidenko, Keping Xie, Mikhail V Blagosklonny
Molecular and Cellular Biology 2002, 22 (6): 1734-41
11865053
Hypoxia causes the accumulation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), culminating in the expression of hypoxia-inducible genes such as those for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and NDRG-1/Cap43. Previously, we have demonstrated that intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) is required for the expression of hypoxia-inducible genes. Here we found that, unlike with hypoxia or hypoxia-mimicking conditions, the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) neither induced the HIF-1alpha protein nor stimulated HIF-1-dependent transcription. Furthermore, the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) induced NDRG-1/Cap43 mRNA in HIF-1alpha-deficient cells. It also increased levels of c-Jun protein, causing its phosphorylation. The protein kinase inhibitor K252a abolished c-Jun induction and activator protein 1 (AP-1)-dependent reporter expression caused by Ca(2+) ionophore or hypoxia. K252a also significantly decreased hypoxia-induced VEGF and NDRG-1/Cap43 gene expression in both human and mouse cells. Using a set of deletion VEGF-Luc promoter constructs, we found that both HIF-1 and two AP-1 sites contribute to hypoxia-mediated induction of transcription. In contrast, only AP-1 sites contributed to Ca(2+)-mediated VEGF-Luc induction. A dominant-negative AP-1 prevented Ca(2+)-dependent transcription and partially impaired hypoxia-mediated transcription. In addition, dominant-negative AP-1 diminished the expression of the NDRG-1/Cap43 gene following hypoxia. We conclude that during hypoxia, an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) activates a HIF-1-independent signaling pathway that involves AP-1-dependent transcription. Cooperation between the HIF-1 and AP-1 pathways allows fine regulation of gene expression during hypoxia.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
11865053
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"