JOURNAL ARTICLE

Pulmonary resection for Mycobacterium xenopi pulmonary infection

L Lang-Lazdunski, C Offredo, F Le Pimpec-Barthes, C Danel, A Dujon, M Riquet
Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2001, 72 (6): 1877-82
11789763

BACKGROUND: Results of medical therapy for Mycobacterium xenopi pulmonary infection remain unreliable. Pulmonary resection may be beneficial to patients whose disease is localized and who can tolerate a resectional operation.

METHODS: Eighteen patients underwent pulmonary resection between 1991 and 2000: 14 men and 4 women, with a mean age of 50 +/- 12 years (range 27 to 68 years). Indications for operation were either therapeutic (n = 9) or diagnostic (n = 9). Four patients received antimycobacterial chemotherapy before their operation and 2 patients were HIV positive.

RESULTS: Therapeutic procedures included completion pneumonectomy (n = 1), lobectomy (n = 6), segmentectomy (n = 1), and bilateral wedge resection (n = 1). Diagnostic procedures included lobectomy (n = 1) and wedge resection (n = 8). Complete resection could be achieved in 15 patients (83%). There was no in-hospital mortality. Postoperative complications included prolonged air leak (5 of 18 patients, 27.7%) and pleural effusion requiring insertion of a new chest tube (3 of 18 patients, 16.6%). Mean hospital stay was 14 +/- 8 days. Follow-up was 100% complete. Eleven patients received antimycobacterial chemotherapy for 4 to 24 months, postoperatively. Late mortality was 11% and was unrelated to progression of mycobacterial disease. After the operation, the sputum remained positive in only 2 patients (11%) with incomplete resections. Fourteen patients were asymptomatic with no relapse at a mean follow-up of 38 +/- 22 months (range 85 to 13 months).

CONCLUSIONS: Resection represents an important adjunct to chemotherapy for the treatment of M. xenopi pulmonary disease. In the setting of localized nodular or cavitary disease, failure to respond to medical therapy, relapse after treatment discontinuation, coexistent aspergilloma or polymicrobial contamination, or patient intolerance of medical therapy, pulmonary resection can be undertaken with acceptable morbidity and mortality.

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