Craniofacial features of patients with Class III abnormalities: growth-related changes and effects of short-term and long-term chincup therapy

Toshio Deguchi, Takao Kuroda, Yasuhiro Minoshima, Tom M Graber
American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2002, 121 (1): 84-92
The craniofacial features of patients with Class III abnormalities, including growth-related changes and effects of short-term and long-term chincup therapy, were studied. Twenty female subjects were treated with chincups and an orthopedic force of 500 g for 31 months (short-term treatment group). Another 36 female patients were treated with chincups and a force of 250 to 300 g for 86 months (long-term treatment group). All subjects treated with chincups had lateral cephalograms taken before treatment (T0), after treatment (T1), and at retention (T2). Cross-sectional lateral films of 562 skeletal Class III girls were selected from the records of 1265 Class III patients at a public hospital and private clinics as controls. The controls were selected to approximately match the ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and chronological age of the treated groups. Short-term treatment resulted in a slight improvement in ANB angle and Wits appraisal, while long-term treatment resulted in a significant improvement in ANB angle and Wits appraisal. Such treatment also resulted in a significant inhibition of the growth of the ramus (2.2 mm) and body length (3.6 mm) of the mandible, a backward rotation of the mandible, and a reduction (8.2 degrees ) of the gonial angle. However, there was no alteration of any parameter of the maxilla and the cranial base, except the length of S-N and N-S-Ar in the long-term treatment group. Subjects who completed the long-term treatment protocol retained the changes by wearing the appliance during sleep, with a force of 200 g applied to the center of the chin.

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